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  • Open access
  • 70 Reads
Overview of a Project devoted to Release an open-source Software Tool for the Creation, Feeding and Querying of a NoSQL Metadata Repository about UML Class Diagrams

Enterprise Web applications are an essential part of the computer-based information system of most organizations. In the last ten years, the authors carried out an intense research activity in the field of automatic code generation of this category of software applications [1-3]. The pillars on which is based our approach are UML and the Model Driven Architecture.

The paper to be submitted to this forum describes the objectives, beneficiaries, architecture and technologies of an ongoing project. The goal of the project is to release an open-source software tool devoted to the creation, feeding and querying of a NoSQL metadata repository about UML class diagrams. The usage of such a tool is a precondition for speeding up the development process of high quality Enterprise Web applications through the reuse of UML artifacts.

Very Small Entities (VSEs) developing such a category of software are the beneficiaries of the software tool. VSEs are the global software industry’s dominant force since many offerings are coming from them. We adopt the following definition of VSEs taken from ISO/IEC TR 29110-1:2016(E): "A VSE is considered to be an entity that engages in systems or software engineering activities at any point, including development, integration, or maintenance."

The conceptual and technological choices underlying the ongoing project were driven by a careful investigation of the state of the art. The latter will be part of the full paper.

The project is composed of three phases. The first two of them are already finished. These phases can be summarized as follows. We started from the study of the state of the art about repositories of UML artifacts (Phase 1). The final design decision was to organize the VSE’s repository as three distinct components:

  • a repository about the modeling artifacts, briefly model repository [4];
  • a repository about the generated code; and
  • a repository containing metadata about modeling artifacts result of past projects, briefly metadata repository [4].

Part of the Phase 2 was the formalization of the structure of the metadata repository and its implementation as a NoSQL database; moreover a parser was implemented which is responsible for the automatic extraction of metadata describing the artifacts in the model repository and their subsequent upload into the metadata repository.

At present we are implementing the User Interface towards the metadata repository (Phase 3). It is composed of three software components which support, in turn, the accomplishment of the following goals: (a) creation of an empty instance of the NoSQL DB; (b) extraction of metadata from the XMI file about a single class diagram present in the model repository and copying them into the NoSQL DB; (c) formulation of three predefined templates of queries against the NoSQL DB.


[1] Paolone, G.; Di Felice, P.; Liguori, G.; Cestra, G.; Clementini, E. A Business Use Case Driven Methodology -- A Step Forward. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE), Athens, Greece, 22–24 July 2010; pp. 221–226. Available online: (accessed on 7 April 2020).

[2] Paolone, G.; Marinelli, M.; Paesani, R.; Di Felice, P. Automatic Code Generation of MVC Web Applications. Computers, vol. 9, no.3, 56 2020;

[3] Paolone, G.; Paesani, R.; Marinelli, M.; Di Felice, P. Empirical Assessment of the Quality of MVC Web Applications Returned by xGenerator. Computers 2021, 10(2), 20; - 04 Feb 2021.

[4] Mayr, C.; Zdun, U.; Dustdar, S. Reusable Architectural Decision Model for Model and Metadata Repositories. In: de Boer F.S., Bonsangue M.M., Madelaine E. (eds) Formal Methods for Components and Objects, 2008. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5751, 2009 1–20. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

  • Open access
  • 63 Reads
The relationship between the degree of conversion in dental dimethacrylate polymers determined by infrared spectroscopy and polymerization shrinkage
Published: 15 October 2021 by MDPI in 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences session Chemistry

This work aimed to study the relationship between the degree of conversion (DC) in dental dimethacrylate polymer networks determined by two different methods - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR) and polymerization shrinkage. For this purpose, a series of compositions of dental monomers Bis-GMA and TEGDMA were prepared and polymerized. The DC determined by FT IR (DCIR) was calculated by using the internal standard method, in which the absorption intensity of the double bond vibrations band (located at 1637cm1) was related to the absorption intensity of the internal standard – the band coming from skeletal stretching vibrations of the C=C aromatic ring (located at 1608 cm1). The DC determined from the polymerization shrinkage (DCS) was calculated by measuring the differences in the monomer and polymer densities, resulting from the volumetric contraction of the system due to polymerization. The decrease in molar volume, resulting from the polymerization of one mole of double bond, was taken from the literature, and it was 22.5 cm3. The obtained results revealed that the DCIR ranged from 55 to 72% and increased as the concentration of Bis-GMA increased and then decreased when the Bis-GMA concentration exceeded 70 wt.%. A similar tendency was observed for the DCS. However, the obtained values were lower. DCS ranged from 46 to 62%.

  • Open access
  • 64 Reads
Implementation of Force Feedback On Surgical Manipulator For Minimally Invasive Surgery

In this paper, a surgical instrument integrated with a piezoelectric force sensor using advanced computational algorithms is proposed. The instrument could measure grasping force directly at the end effector. For this purpose, grasper-integrated piezoelectric force transducers were embedded in the forceps of the instrument. The compact design of the sensor was realized with a long rectangular structure. The instrument was tested focusing on the factors such as resolution and root mean square error by using reference sensors. Through the experiments, it was confirmed that the proposed method worked well. The force feedback at the tip of the forceps is beneficial for avoiding tissue damage caused by the surgeon’s grasping and incipient slips. It allows the force feedback control of robotic systems with improved surgeon’s operation skill. Furthermore, the sensorized forceps were easily fabricated and are inexpensive.

  • Open access
  • 111 Reads
A case study for Implementing plant Corrosion inspection and maintenance anomaly integrity management system on Sabratha gas production offshore platform in the Mediterranean Sea
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Corrosion and maintenance anomaly & integrity management systems are now the foundation of many industrial and engineering systems in point of sustainability and long-lasting assets. The oil and gas industry started developing new integrated management systems to keep its assets safe in its life cycle without real external failures. However, The overlapping of assets’ integrity responsibilities occurs when a conflict of interests, such as production, safety, environmental, and financial interfacing, are inaccurately weighed against each other. This paper will review the case study of anomaly and integrity management systems implemented in the Sabratha offshore platform. In order to achieve sustainable asset implementation, it is essential to figure the different weights given to the critical factors controlling operational anomaly and integrity of facilities on an offshore platform and re-classified the potential failures. So design practices are reviewed. Also, Inspection techniques and strategies are re-assessed and used to describe the consistent integrity assessment techniques which linked to anomaly monitoring and maintenance criteria. Finally, the anomaly and integrity management system design uses activity, process models, structures, and flow diagrams. The work will be helpful for the further enhancement of a new machine learning system to support this approach.

  • Open access
  • 119 Reads
Anticancer activity of commercial noni juice

Noni juice, obtained from the fruit of the noni tree (Morinda citrifolia L.), is a popular commodity in the market, particularly in the South Pacific. It is widely used by consumers for the prevention of several lifestyle diseases such as cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiopathy, and cerebral apoplexy caused by arteriosclerosis. Although there is an increasing interest in the potential therapeutic use of noni plants, there are no comparative studies on the various commercialized noni fruit juices available to decipher their phytochemical composition and properties against carcinomas. The present study, therefore, aims to fill this research gap and investigate its anecdotal use as complementary alternative medicine to manage cancer.

Five commercial brands of noni juice were included in this study, namely Tahitian Organic Noni (TON), Cook Island Noni (CIN), Dynamic Health Noni (DHN), Fijian Noni (FN), and Life Health Noni (LHN). The juice samples were vacuum filtered and freeze-dried to obtain crystal products for methanolic extraction. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (FRAP-Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) were determined on the methanolic extracts. The cytotoxicity of the noni juices was also tested on human epithelial adenocarcinomas (HeLa and HT29 cell lines), by dissolving 2 mg of the crystal product in sterile deionized water and diluting to 1000 ug/mL in the media culture. The final concentration of the extracts in the well plate was 500 ug/mL. The MTS cell viability assay was performed after the cells were incubated with the extracts for 48 hours at 37°C with 5% CO2.

The DHN and FN extracts were found to have the highest TPC of 5523 ± 291 and 5193 ± 29 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, whereas the highest antioxidant capacity was seen in the CIN extract (5666 ± 973 mg Trolox equivalent /100 g DW). The CIN extract also showed the most promising effect with only 67 ± 5 % cell viability whilst the other extracts showed lower cytotoxic effects (85-93% cell viability) on the HeLa cell line. However, HT29 cells appeared to be the most susceptible to the FN extracts with cell viability of 73 % compared to 77-89% viability in the remaining extracts. It is possible that greater cytotoxicity could be observed over long exposure times. The noni juice samples contain high levels of TP and antioxidant capacity and appear to show some level of cytotoxic activity, although not statistically different from the negative control. Further work is required to verify if this is “true” (i.e., statistically significant) anti-cancer activity.

  • Open access
  • 64 Reads
Changes in anthocyanin and antioxidant contents during maturation of Australian highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars
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The Australian blueberry industry is worth over $300 million, but there is limited information on factors influencing their chemical composition, particularly their ripeness and harvest stage. This pilot study aimed to investigate changes in the total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMAC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of four common Australian blueberry cultivars at different times and stages of maturity. Four highbush blueberry cultivars (Denise, Blue Rose, Brigitta and Bluecrop) were analysed for TAC (using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay) and TMAC (using the pH-differential method) at four time points and three maturity stages (unripe, moderately ripe and fully ripe). The TAC of most cultivars decreased with increasing ripeness (by 8-18%), although that of the Blue Rose cultivar increased markedly. However, the TAC of ripe fruit from this cultivar also fluctuated markedly throughout the harvest season (between 1168-2171 mg Trolox equivalents 100 g-1). The TMAC increased sharply between the medium-ripe and fully ripe maturity stages, with the Blue Rose cultivar showing the highest TMAC values (211 mg 100 g-1, compared to 107-143 mg 100 g-1 for the remaining varieties). The TMAC of ripe fruit from this cultivar also rose steadily throughout the harvest season, in contrast to most other cultivars where the TMAC fell slightly over time. These results indicate that the levels of health-benefitting compounds in Australian-grown highbush blueberries may depend not only on the cultivar, but also upon the time of harvest.

  • Open access
  • 35 Reads
In Vitro Effect of Different Dental Composites on the Cuspal Deflection
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Objectives: the aim of this study was to evaluate cuspidal deformation effects due to shrinkage stress of the composite restorations using different types of composite resins.

Methods: Forty premolars were selected and randomly divided in Group A and B. Group A specimens were subjected to a class I cavity preparation., Group B elements were subjected to Class II preparation. Group A and B were sub-divided in 4 subgroups. Group A1 and B1 were restored with Clearfil Majesty (kuraray, Japan). Group A2 and B2 were restored with Enamel plus (micerium, Italy). Strain deformation was measured using a strain gauge technique. A linear strain gage (SG) was placed on buccal tooth side. The strain gauges were connected to digital hardware. The software acquired and stored 5 strain measurements per second, Each strain measurement was converted in a single strain-time function. Data were subjected to statistic analysis.

Results: Group A1 show lower percentage of detachments (15%) than Group A2 (37%). Group B1 and B2 strain-time functions show an absence of strong deflections. Plateau functions values show no statistically significant variations. p<o.05

Conclusions: Our results showed that the composites tested might cause different effects on cuspal deflection and in turn on the success of dental restorations.

  • Open access
  • 128 Reads
Review of the importance of Hydrazide and its Derivatives in Organic synthesis
Published: 15 October 2021 by MDPI in 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences session Chemistry

Organic acid hydrazides includes vast group of organic derivatives of hydrazines containing the active functional group (-C(=O)NHNH2). Acid hydrazones were important bidentate ligands and shows keto-enol (amido-iminol) tautomerism. They usually, exist in keto form in the solid state while, in equilibrium between keto and enol forms in solution state. Such hydrazones were synthesized in the laboratory by heating substituted hydrazides or hydrazines with corresponding aldehydes or ketones in different organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol, butanol, tetrahydrofuran, etc. and in some cases with the ethanol-glacial acetic acid or acetic acid alone. Hydrozones are very important intermediates for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and also, has different biological activities. The organic chemist shows more interest towards the acid hydrazides and their derivatives because of their properties. These derivatives having wide applications as chemical preservers for plants, drugs, for manufacturing polymers, glues, etc., in industry, and for many other purposes . These acid hydrazides and their derivatives were found to be useful synthons for various heterocyclic five, six or seven membered rings with one or more heteroatoms that were exhibited great biological, pharmacological and industrial applications. This paper will present a review of the chemistry and pharmacological potentials of hydrazide-hydrazones. The various synthetic routes for hydrazones as well as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral potentials have been elaborated in brief.

  • Open access
  • 67 Reads
Aptamer-Based Plasmonic Optical Fiber Biosensors: a Focus on relevant applications

Aptamers represent the next frontier as biorecognition elements in biosensors and point-of-care devices since they have a smaller size and lower molecular weight with respect to antibodies, they are characterized by more structural flexibility, a prolonged shelf life with the possibility to regeneration; moreover, they can be synthesized reducing the batch-to-batch variation and the costs and introducing chemical groups useful for their immobilization on the sensor surface. Furthermore, their high specificity and small size are particularly interesting for their application in optical biosensors since the perturbation of the evanescent field is low. Since 2000, they have been employed in this field, highlighting their potentiality and starting from 2014, they have overcome antibodies as selective biorecognition layer for optical fiber biosensors.

Among the conventional plasmonic optical fiber platforms based on silica, a new class of optical fiber sensor devices is under development exploiting specialty optical fibers, such as plastic optical fibers (POFs). POFs are especially advantageous due to their excellent flexibility that allows an easy manipulation, a great numerical aperture, a large diameter increasing the surface area disposable for the functionalization and consequently the target capture. Here, a focus on different significant biological applications (e.g., the detection of Thrombin, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), and SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein) based on aptamers combined with plasmonic-POF probes is presented.

  • Open access
  • 33 Reads
Seed priming with pectic-oligosaccharides improved seed ger-2 mination and growth of chili

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of pectic-oligosaccharides (POS) obtained from oxidative degradation of pomelo peel with H2O2 under alkaline condition on seed germination and growth of chili using the seed priming technique. Two types of POSs, (POS-I and POS-II), having different size distributions were prepared. Chili seeds were soaked in 500 ppm of POS solutions for 16 h at two temperatures, 30 and 50 °C, with moderate shaking, and then air-dried. The primed seeds were planted on wet filter paper in a petri dish at 30 °C for 9 d and the effects of priming on germination and growth were observed. Priming of seeds with POS at 30 °C increased the germination percentage and vigor index at 9 d after sowing by 16.7-20.5 % and 16.0-25.5%, respectively, whereas root and shoot length did not differ from the hydropriming. However, there were no significant differences in all growth parameters between POS-I and POS-II treatments. Seedling length and vigor index of seeds primed with POS at 30 °C (29.3-31.0 mm, 2693.9-2914.0) were also significantly higher than those of non-priming seeds (22.9 mm, 2062). Priming the seeds at 50 °C had an adverse effect on seed germination, i.e., germination percentage was reduced by 24.4-31.9% compared to seeds primed at 30 °C. It also resulted in a significant reduction of chili seed growth, possibly due to inactivation of some enzymes in chili seeds.